|Birch leaves chewed by winter moth caterpillars|
Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) came to Boston in 1868, imported by Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, an astronomer in Medford, Massachusetts who was trying to mate them with silk worms. In an all-too-common scenario, they escaped from his custody and traveled across Massachusetts defoliating trees over vast areas. The last major outbreak was in 1981.
|Life stages of the gypsy moth|
In an interesting ecological twist, gypsy moth populations were decimated soon afterward by a newly introduced fungus. This year’s drought changed the balance by limiting the fungus, so gypsy moths surged.
Elkinton said that biological control—introduction of organisms to kill unwanted insects such as gypsy moth—was tried as far back as 1905. In this approach, insects that control the pests in their homeland are brought over to do the same here.
Early on, one introduced parasitoid killed native insects, such as the beautiful luna moth (Actias luna).
|The luna moth is a North American native|
A parasitoid, unlike a parasite, ultimately sterilizes or kills its host.
That brought me to what I wanted to know from Elkinton’s talk. How can we be sure we won’t cause more problems by releasing new nonnative insects to control the ones we don’t like? His answer was, “Host range testing.” This means carefully evaluating the insect you’re planning to release, checking whether it will use native insects as hosts. Entomologists in this field only release parasitoids or predators that specialize in one nonnative insect, unlike goofballs like Trouvelot.
Winter moth (Operophtera brumata), also from Europe, got to the US in 1950 and has been a major problem in eastern Massachusetts since around 2001. The larvae, little caterpillars, tunnel into buds and eat young leaves of most of our deciduous trees. Elkinton has been releasing a tiny tachinid fly, Cyzenis albicans, to parasitize winter moth larvae.
|Winter moth caterpillar|
This is a long process. It takes three to five years after introduction to establish a population of the fly in a new location. To determine whether their efforts are succeeding, his team and volunteers harvest 120,000 caterpillars in May and check whether each contains flies.
Elkinton revealed that my neighborhood has an established population of C. albicans. He predicted there will be enough of them next summer to make a significant dent in the winter moth population.
Thereby hangs a sustainability dilemma. If I continue having my trees sprayed to kill winter moth caterpillars, I’ll kill the little flies inside the larvae as well. I’d like to let the flies do their job, but if they don’t, the caterpillars will defoliate the trees. I think I'll take a chance and skip the spraying.
|Last foliage of the year. This ornamental plum could be defoliated by winter moth next summer if I guess wrong.|